شعب الأويغور   شعب تركي مسلم يكابد من اضطهاد الاستعمار الصيني  ويدعوا أخوانه واخواته في العقيدة  للاطلاع على احواله ومعاناته

 EAST TURKISTAN CIVILIZATION
     Toward the end of the 19th century and into the first decades of the 20th, scientific and archeological expeditions to the region of Eastern Turkestan's Silk Road discovered numerous cave temples, monastery ruins, wall paintings, as well as valuable miniatures, books and documents. Explorers from Europe, America and even Japan were amazed by the art treasures to be found there, and soon their reports were capturing the attention of an interested public around the world. These relics of Uygur culture today constitute major collections in the museums of Berlin, London, Paris, Tokyo, Leningrad and the Museum of Central Asian Antiquities in New Delhi. Together with the manuscripts and documents discovered in Eastern Turkestan reveal the very high degree of civilization attained by the Uygurs. Throughout the centuries Uygurs have used three different scripts. Confederated with the Kok Turks in the 6th and 7th centuries, they used the Orkhun script. Later they adopted what became known as the Uygur script. This script was used for almost 800 years not only by the Uygurs, but also by other Turkic peoples, Mongols, and by the Manchus in the early stage of their rule in China. After embracing Islam in the 10th century the Uygurs adapted the Arabic alphabet, and its use became common in the 11th century. Most of the early Uygur literary works were translations of Buddhist and Manichean religious texts, but there were also narrative, poetic and epic works. Some of these have been translated into German, English and Russian. After embracing Islam the Uygurs continued to preserve their cultural dominance in Central Asia. World renowned Uygurs scholars emerged, and Uygur literature flourished. Among the hundreds of important works surviving from this era are the Kutat-ku Bilik by Yusuf Has Hajip (1069-70), Mahmud Kashgari's Divan-i Lugat-it Turk, and Ahmet Yukneki's Atbetul Hakayik.
The Uygurs had an extensive knowledge of medicine and medical practice. Sung Dynasty (906-960) sources indicate that an Uygur physician, Nanto, traveled to China and brought with him many kinds of medicine not known to the Chinese. There are 103 different herbs for use in Uygur medicine recorded in a medical compendium by Li Shizhen(1518-1593), a Chinese medical authority. Tatar scholar Professor Rashid Rahmeti Arat in Zur Heilkunde der Uighuren (Medical Practices of Uygurs) published in 1930 and 1932, in Berlin, discussed Uygur medicine. Relying on a sketch of a man with an explanation of acupuncture, he and some Western scholars suspect that acupuncture was not a Chinese, but an Uygur discovery. Uygurs were also advanced in fields such as architecture, art, music and printing the Uygurs were also advanced. Western scholars who have studied Uygur history, culture and civilization have often expressed a high regard for the cultural level of the Uygurs. For instance, according to Ferdinand Sassure, Those who preserved the language and written culture in Central Asia were the Uygurs." Albert von Lecoq wrote, The Uygur language and script contributed to the enrichment of civilizations of the other peoples in Central Asia. Compared to the Europeans of that time the Uygurs were far more advanced. Documents discovered in Eastern Turkestan prove that an Uygur farmer could write down a contract, using legal terminology. How many European farmers could have done that at that period? This shows the extent of Uygur civilization of that time. Prof. Dr. Laszlo Rasonyi wrote, the Uygurs knew how to print books centuries before Gutenberg invented his press. In the judgment of Prof. Dr. Wolfram Eberhard, in the MiddleAges, Chinese poetry, literature, theatre, music and painting were greatly influenced by the Uygurs.
Chinese envoys such as Hsuan Chang, Wang Yen De and Chang Chun who traveled through Eastern Turkestan from the seventh to the thirteenth centuries reported that they were impressed by the high degree of Uygur power, prestige and culture they encountered there.
Wang Yen De, who served as an ambassador to the Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom between the years 981 and 984, wrote in his memoirs: "I was impressed with the extensive civilization I found in the Uygur Kingdom. The beauty of the temples, monasteries, wall paintings, statues, towers, gardens, houses and the palaces built throughout the kingdom cannot be described. The Uygurs are very skilled in handicrafts of gold and silver, vases and potteries. Some say God has infused this talent into this people only."
This Uygur power, prestige, and culture dominated Central Asia for more than 1000 years went into a steep decline after the Manchu invasion of Eastern Turkestan, and during the rule of the Nationalist and especially the Communist Chinese.
((Originally/Published by Eastern Turkestan Union in Europe))

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 تصميم انس بن ضياء الدين

 

 

 

 

Uygurlarning Menberi

 البوابة GATE  /

Arabic

  Home
ET news
Riots in ET
E T  MAP
ET GEOGRAPHY
ET CIVILIZATION
ET memory
E. T.  OIL
ET ALBUM
ET National Congress
ET HISTORY
 ET GOVERNMENT DECLRATION 
DONATIONS  
NOT TERORISM  
Australia`s Uygur
Uygur in Esonia
Uyghur American Association
ETR MEMORY
LITERATURE
NEED A LEADER
BIRTH CONTROL
AT BELGIUM
PHOTOS IN SWEDEN
Nuclear Tests
story of scape
AMNESTY
International media
Rebiya Kadeer
Oleg Sidorov
Tom Watkins
Sergey Rasov
Uygur diaspora
Uygurlarning Menberi
Paul Goble
Uygur script
Zia Samedi
Uygurs Links
Uygur Links
ET books
Travelling to ET
Uygur Info center
Turkistan on line
Gökbayrak
Uyghurche